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342                                         ETYMOLOGY  OF LOCAL NAMES.
Thus Bhilai, a settlement of Bhal Thaknrs, is seen to represent Bhdl-ki
Baghai Is for Bagh-ki; Madanai for Madan-ki; Ughai for   Ugra-ki; Mahpai
for Mahipa-ki ; Jonai for Jamuna-ki (Jauna being mentioned by Vararuchi as
the Prakrit form of Yamuna) ; and Semri, with its ancient temple of Syamala
Devi, for SyamalsL-kL Similarly, Indau is for Indra-ka and Karnau for Rar-
na-ka : the representation of a 4- a by aw rather than d being almost an invari-
able practice, as we see in TOM, a contraction for raja, pdnw for pada, nau for
nena and taut, for tdka,
Ka, K, however, are not the only signs of the genitive case in nse ; for in
the Marwari dialect their place is occupied by rd, ri. Of this form, too, there
are abundant examples, as might have been anticipated : for some centuries ago
migrations from Rajpiitana into Mathura were very frequent and in a less
degree continue to the present day. Thus, we have Umraura, Lolirari,
G-anesara, Bhurari, Puthri (from putk, a sand-hill), Bhainsara, Garumra (for
Gamda-ra) and Bagharraj &c. At the last-named place the old village site is
called Sher-ka-kherd, which puts the meaning of the word Bagharra beyond a
doubt ; the reduplication of the r being purely phonetic. In other names the
consonant has not been reduplicated, but the same effect has been produced by
lengthening the vowel Such are Kunjera (where is Kunj-ban), Kahera
Kinera (founded by Sissodia !Mkurs3 who named it after the Edna of Chitor
whence they had migrated), Maghera, Sonera, and Konkera, Ac.
The origin of the two particles M and rd has been much disputed. I would
suggest that they both represent au original kara, or Jcar. This we find used occa-
sionally by Tialsi Das as a substantive; as in the line tab karas; vimoh ab naJdn;
' then the matter was so ; now there is no delusion.* More frequently it occurs
as the sign of the genitive ; and even in the line quoted it might be regarded in
that light, by supposing an ellipse of some such word as hdl, or vydpdr. The
transition from the one use to the other being so easy, it can scarcely be doubted
that*the particle and the substantive are really the same identical word. The
loss of the final r would naturally cause a lengthening of the vowel, and thus
Jcar becomes M,
Xtte alternative form rd may be explained by the elision of the initial £,
which would ordinarily take place whenever kara was made the last member of
a compound. Thus Rana-kara becomes Bzkmra or Ranera ; and the lengthen-
ing of the final a is not at all an exceptional phenomenon.
Not un£requen%, however, instead of being lengthened, the final a of the
affix fern is dropt as well as the initial consonant. There consequently remains